Pusat Pelayanan dan Konsultasi Kesehatan
(Public Service and Health Consultation)
It is important that proponents and communities alike are aware of issues that may be perceived as risks and should be considered during the early planning stages of developments.
The Guide provides advice on the range of public health issues that may be of relevance to communities to consider as well as information related to the engagement of stakeholder groups who could be included in these consultation processes. The guide is intended to be a broad framework rather than a step by step process for community engagement and consultation. The framework has been developed to focus on a range of determinants of public health within the consultation process.
Pusat Pendidikan dan Konseling Remaja
(Teenage Education and Counselling Center)
JKM Indonesia Counselling Division focuses on the strengths of children and teenager to help them through health, social, emotional or relationship difficulties.
We work with children and youth to build their confidence, connections to family and resilience to life’s challenges. We have established a number of specialized child and youth programs, as well as general youth and family counselling services.
Pusat Konseling dan Penanggulangan HIV AIDS
(Counselling and Prevention for HIV AIDS)
The life expectancy and quality of life of an HIV/AIDS-infected patient can be greatly extended through both the introduction of approved drug regimens and healthy daily living habits. HIV/AIDS patients can proactively avoid many OIs by following a daily drug regimen that includes both antiretroviral therapies and prophylaxes. In addition to maintaining drug therapies, HIV/AIDS patients should engage in safe sex practices, avoid illicit drug use and needle sharing, and take extra precautions when working in high-exposure areas such as day-care centers, prisons, health-care facilities, and homeless centers. Some dietary management practices can also reduce the development of OIs, including avoiding raw or undercooked products and unpasteurized dairy products, washing hands frequently when preparing foods, and drinking filtered water.
Pusat Penanggulangan Infeksi Menular seksual
(Sexual Transmitted Infection Prevention Center)
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), or sexually transmitted infections (STIs), are generally acquired by sexual contact. The organisms that cause sexually transmitted diseases may pass from person to person in blood, semen, or vaginal and other bodily fluids.
Some such infections can also be transmitted nonsexually, such as from mother to infant during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.
It’s possible to contract sexually transmitted diseases from people who seem perfectly healthy — people who, in fact, aren’t even aware of being infected. Many STDs cause no symptoms in some people, which is one of the reasons experts prefer the term “sexually transmitted infections” to “sexually transmitted diseases.”
Pusat Informasi dan Pencegahan Kanker
(Cancer Information and Prevention Center)
Many people think that cancer is inevitable, but developing healthy lifestyle habits and getting regular screening exams can greatly reduce your risk for some types of cancer.
MD Anderson’s Lyda Hill Cancer Prevention Center offers a range of services to help you learn how to reduce your cancer risk or to detect cancer early at its most treatable stage. Cancer screening exams are based on age, gender and disease risk. Risk assessment and risk reduction services are available as, well as diagnostic evaluation services.
Pusat Penelitian Kesehatan Masyarakat
(Public Health Research Center)
The development of new public health approaches would be impossible without rigorous research providing a foundation of knowledge from which to build. JKM is invested in producing research of the highest caliber and houses a global public health research center, serving as a University-wide resource for large scale, multi-school, multi-disciplinary and multi-site research projects. JKM’s research draws from faculty expertise on multiple topics in multiple geographic settings; coordinates administrative support; works collaboratively with community partners and constituents; and takes a comprehensive approach to research problems, incorporating complimentary perspectives and approaches from across disciplines.
Pusat Kesehatan Reproduksi dan Gender
(Reproductive Health and Gender Center)
Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women’s sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals–legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming.
Pusat Pelayanan dan Konsultasi Kesehatan
(Prevention of Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Services Center)
A well-proven way to prevent cervix cancer is to have testing (screening) to find pre-cancers before they can turn into invasive cancer. The Pap test (or Pap smear) and the human papilloma virus (HPV) test are used for this. If a pre-cancer is found it can be treated, stopping cervical cancer before it really starts. Most invasive cervical cancers are found in women who have not had regular Pap tests.
The Pap test (or Pap smear) is a procedure used to collect cells from the cervix so that they can be looked at under a microscope to find cancer and pre-cancer. These cells can also be used for HPV testing. A Pap test can be done during a pelvic exam, but not all pelvic exams include a Pap test.
An HPV test can be done on the same sample of cells collected for the Pap test.
The most important thing you can do to prevent cervical cancer is to be tested according to American Cancer Society guidelines.
Pusat Bantuan Manajemen Usaha Mikro
(Micro Business Management Center)
Small businesses often face a variety of problems related to their size. A frequent cause of bankruptcy is under-capitalization. This is often a result of poor planning rather than economic conditions – it is common rule of thumb that the entrepreneur should have access to a sum of money at least equal to the projected revenue for the first year of business in addition to his anticipated expenses. For example, if the prospective owner thinks that he will generate $10,000 in revenues in the first year with $15,000 in start-up expenses, then he should have not less than $25,000 available. Failure to provide this level of funding for the company could leave the owner liable for all of the company’s debt should he end up in bankruptcy court, under the theory of under-capitalization.
In addition to ensuring that the business has enough capital, the small business owner must also be mindful of contribution margin (sales minus variable costs). To break even, the business must be able to reach a level of sales where the contribution margin equals fixed costs. When they first start out, many small business owners under-price their products to a point where even at their maximum capacity, it would be impossible to break even. Cost controls or price increases often resolve this problem.
Pusat Pelayanan Pengembangan Masyarakat
(Public Service and Development Center)
The quality of public services is an important determinant of the health of an economy. Public perceptions of the public service as well as public servants’ and business owners’ assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of public service delivery are invaluable for the design of policies, pans and strategies to improve governance and the provision of government services generally. By and large the level of satisfaction with the services provided by public agencies is poor. Within such a poor service delivery context, it should not come as a surprise that the State faces many challenges. Infrastructures can be provided only when government is committed to development and has effective policies.